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Submissions should be made electronically through this website. Once submitted, the author can track the submission and communicate with the editors via the online journal management system.
Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript. Failure to do so may delay processing your submission.
We also request that authors do not submit more than article to the journal per year.
All word limits include referencing and citation.
To ensure blind peer review, please only list the title and abstract on the submitted manuscript file.
The names of all authors, affiliations, contact details, biography (in English or Portuguese, with a maximum of 100 words) and the corresponding author details must be completed online as part of the submission process. All authors must fit within the journal's definition of an author, available here.
Author names should include a forename and a surname.
The affiliation should ideally include ‘Department, Institution, City, Country’. However only the Institution and Country are mandatory. Please follow institutional norms, if applicable, ex.: Centro de Estudos Anglísticos, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa.
Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 250 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified from the start of the main text.
A list of up to six keywords must be placed below the abstract.
The Abstract and Keywords should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.
Times New Roman font, size 12 point; 1,5 spaces; left and right justified
The body of the submission should be structured into sections and, if necessary, into sub-sections, using Arabic numerals. Up to three level headings may be present and must be clearly identifiable using different font sizes, bold or italics. We suggest using Headings 1, 2 and 3 in MS-Word’s ‘Style’ section.
Supplementary Files (optional)
Any supplementary/additional files that should link to the main publication must be listed, with a corresponding number, title and option description. Ideally the supplementary files are also cited in the main text.
e.g. Supplementary file 1: Appendix.
Note: Additional files will not be typeset so they must be provided in their final form. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication.
If data, structured methods or code used in the research project have been made openly available, a statement should be added to inform the reader how/where to access these files. This should include the repository location and the DOI linking to it. Read our reproducibility guide for more information on best practice and maximising the impact of your open data.
If data used in the research project has not been made available, a statement confirming this should be added, along with reasoning why.
The journal's data policy is available on the Editorial Policies page.
Ethics and consent (if applicable)
Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Where applicable, studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subject(s) should be anonymised whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardian) and added to this statement. If a study involving human subjects/tissue/data was exempt from requiring ethical approval, a confirmation statement from the relevant body should be included within the submission.
Experiments using animals must follow national standards of care. For further information, click here.
Any acknowledgements must be headed and in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list.
Funding Information (if applicable)
Should the research have received a funding grant then the grant provider and grant number should be detailed.
If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Guidelines for competing interests can be found here. If there are no competing interests to declare then the following statement should be present: The author(s) has/have no competing interests to declare.
All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file.
The author is responsible for obtaining all permissions required prior to submission of the manuscript. Permission and owner details should be mentioned for all third-party content included in the submission or used in the research.
If a method or tool is introduced in the study, including software, questionnaires, and scales, the license this is available under and any requirement for permission for use should be stated. If an existing method or tool is used in the research, it is the author's responsibility to check the license and obtain the necessary permissions. Statements confirming that permission was granted should be included in the Materials and Methods section.
For the submission title:
Capitalise all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions (i.e. as, because, although). Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions.
Headings within the main text:
First level headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.
For lower-level subheadings, only capitalise first letter and proper nouns.
Headings should be under 75 characters.
Submissions must be made in English or Portuguese. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout the whole of the submission.
When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.
American or English grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format (see above). Use serial commas.
Use the phrase “this article” or this essay” rather than “this paper”.
For dates, use the English format, i.e. day, month, year—14 July 2018.
The font used should be Times New Roman. This may be changed during the typesetting process.
Underlined text should be avoided whenever possible. Bold or italicised text to emphasise a point are permitted, although they should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their efficiency. Bold can be used for highlighting within italics and for headings. Please refrain from the use of FULL CAPS (except for focal stress and abbreviations) and underlining (except for highlighting within examples, as an alternative for boldface).
Emphasis and foreign words: Use italics for foreign words, highlighting, and emphasis.
Note: Check for extra spaces using your word processor and remove them.
Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.
Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their impact.
For quotations in the text, use “double quotation marks” and, in texts submitted in Portuguese, if you use punctuation marks after the quotation, please place them after closing the quotation marks. (Ex.: Written twenty years after “Nature”, “The Apple-Tree Table” is a complex response to complex Emersonian principles.) Use ‘single quotation’ marks for quotes-within-quotes, i.e., when quoting an excerpt with an inner quotation. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For long quotations (more than 40 words), do not use quotation marks; set off whole quotation from the text by indenting from the left margin (use tab: 1.5 cm). Left and right justified, with one line spacing above and below main text. Do not enclose in quotation marks. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. Do not use tab or indentation after a quotation that has been set off from the text. The standard, non-italicised font must be used for all quotes.
Suppressed text in citations: use (…); do not use […] or…
It must be clear from the text and/or citation where the quote is sourced. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.
● Research completed by the World Health Organization (WHO) shows …
A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found here.
Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops.
● e.g., i.e., etc.
In uppercase letter abbreviations, do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations composed solely of capital letters, except in the case of proper names: USA, MA, CD, HTML.
Degree names: PhD, not PHD.
Scholarly abbreviations: anon. for anonymous; no. for number; P for Press (used for academic presses); p. for page, pp. for pages; par. for paragraph when page numbers are unavailable; qtd. in for quoted in; U for University (for example, Purdue U); UP for University Press (for example, Yale UP or U of California P).
Spell out centuries: i.e. “nineteenth century” rather than “19th century”, “tenth century” rather than “10th century”, etc.
“c.” or “ca.” should always be spelled out and in italics: “circa”.
Names initials should have a space: i.e. T. S. Eliot.
Spell out %: i.e. “15 per cent”.
Use of endnotes
Times New Roman font, size 10 point; 1,5 spaces; left and right justified.
Use endnotes rather than footnotes (we refer to these as ‘Notes’ in the online publication). These will appear at the end of the main text, before ‘References’.
All notes should be used only where crucial clarifying information needs to be conveyed. MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes. MLA style does, however, allow you to use endnotes for bibliographic notes, which refer to other publications readers may consult. Avoid using notes for purposes of referencing, with in-text citations used instead. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.
Please insert the endnote marker after the end punctuation.
Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage.
Hyphenation, em and en dashes
Use em-dashes, not hyphens nor en-dashes to create a parenthetical break in the structure of a sentence. Word processing software programs will automatically turn two hyphens into an em-dash (if no space is left before or after them). (Ex.: The short story is set in a domestic environment, in the old house of a family of five people—a couple, two daughters and an Irish maid—also present in former stories.) Note that when a long dash appears in the text, the footnote number appears before the dash. Ex.:
For years, scholars have failed to address this point8—a fact that suggests their cowardice more than their carelessness.
There is no set rule on the use of hyphenation between words, as long as they are consistently used.
En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range. No space should surround the dash.
● 10-25 years
● pp. 10-65
For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.
Authors may use either words or figures to represent large whole figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.
If the sentence includes a series of numbers, then figures must be used in each instance.
● Artefacts were found at depths of 5, 9, and 29 cm.
If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then the figure must be used.
● This study confirmed that 5% of…
If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number.
● Fifteen examples were found to exist…
● The result showed that 15 examples existed…
Do not use a comma for a decimal place.
● 2.43 NOT 2,43
Numbers that are less than zero must have ‘0’ precede the decimal point.
● 0.24 NOT .24
Units of measurement
Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. See http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf for the full brochure.
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
The publication of articles is funded by national funds through the FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., under the project UID / ELT / 00114/2019.
Authors will not be charged any fee for publishing in this journal. The grant provided by FCT covers all publishing costs (editorial processes; web hosting; indexing; marketing; archiving; DOI registration etc.) and ensures that all of the content is fully open access.
A publicação de artigos é financiada por fundos nacionais através da FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., no âmbito do projeto UID/ELT/00114/2019.
Aos autores não será cobrada qualquer taxa de publicação neste periódico. O apoio fornecido pela FCT cobre todos os custos de publicação (processos editoriais, alojamento na Web, indexação, marketing, arquivamento, registo do DOI, etc.) e garante que todo o conteúdo seja totalmente de acesso aberto.